In Ethiopia, the history of landmines dates back to 1935. The 1935-40 Italian invasion; the 1977-78 Ethio/Somalia Ogaden war; the 1980 border war with the Sudan; the 1975-1991 internal conflict; the 1998-2000 Ethio/Eritrean border war; the recent war that involved Tigray, Amhara and Afar regions (2020-2022), and the ongoing armed conflict in Amhara region are believed to be the major war periods in Ethiopia.
In 2006 Landmine Monitor reported that the war with Eritrea resulted in significant contamination of the Tigray region and, to a lesser extent, the Afar and left approximately 364,000 people displaced. The Somali region was contaminated by mines and unexploded ordinance remains from the Ogaden war. Similarly, in 2004, a nationwide Landmine Impact Survey determined that more than 1.9 million people live in landmine-impacted communities. A total of 1,492 communities were positively identified as contaminated with landmines and explosive remnants of war.
Landmine and explosive war remnants causalities
The Landmine & Cluster Munition Monitor 2015 victim assistance page shows that "Many survivors and other persons with disabilities continued to live in poverty and far from existing facilities, which prevented them from accessing assistance services." For instance, indicating the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) Mine Action Coordination Center (MACC) report, Landmine Monitor (2006) reported that from 2000 to 2004, 114 Ethiopians and Eritreans were killed and 293 were injured in 261 mine incidents in the UNMEE mission area of the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) alone. The majority of casualties were shepherds.
According to the Government of Ethiopia 2004-2007 Tigray region district level village profile (those districts bordering with Eritrea), out of the total 343 victims reported, 220 were under 18 years of age. Grazing land, farm land and water point accidents claimed 82% of the victims while road side and residential area explosives claimed 16%. More than 60% of the victims were shepherds followed by farmers, students and others.
Landmine casualties continued to be reported in Ethiopia. As there is no nationwide data collection mechanism in the country, the total number of landmine and explosive remnants of war casualties remains unknown. Very limited casualty data is available for certain areas of the country.
Health services are very limited, mainly situated in the urban centers. It is estimated that more than half of the population live far from the nearest facility with poor transportation network. Past studies show that only 10 percent of mine casualties had access to basic health care and rehabilitation. Provision for psychosocial support and economic reintegration are very limited.